"The bridge is 350 ordinary paces long and 18 broad. It is built of
sandstone, and has on either side a stone balustrade of square columns,
about 4 feet high, 140 on each side, each crowned by a sculptured lion over
a foot high. Beside these there are a number of smaller lions placed
irregularly on the necks, behind the legs, under the feet, or on the back
of the larger ones. The space between the columns is closed by stone slabs.
Four sculptured stone elephants lean with their foreheads against the edge
of the balustrades. The bridge is supported by eleven arches. At each end
of the bridge two pavilions with yellow roofs have been built, all with
large marble tablets in them; two with inscriptions made by order of the
Emperor K'ang-hi (1662-1723); and two with inscriptions of the time of
K'ien-lung (1736-1796). On these tablets the history of the bridge is
recorded." Dr. Bretschneider adds that Dr. Lockhart is also right in
counting nine arches, for he counts only the waterways, not the arches
resting upon the banks of the river. Dr. Forke (p. 5) counts 11 arches and
280 stone lions. - H.C.]
(P. de la Croix, II. 11, etc.; Erskine's Baber, p. xxxiii.; Timour's
Institutes, 70; J. As. IX. 205; Cathay, 260; Magaillans, 14-18, 35;
Lecomte in Astley, III. 529; J. As. ser. II. tom. i. 97-98;
D'Ohsson, I. 144.)
[Illustration: Bridge of Lu ku Kiao]
ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF JUJU.
When you leave the Bridge, and ride towards the west, finding all the way
excellent hostelries for travellers, with fine vineyards, fields, and
gardens, and springs of water, you come after 30 miles to a fine large city
called JUJU, where there are many abbeys of idolaters, and the people live
by trade and manufactures. They weave cloths of silk and gold, and very
fine taffetas.[NOTE 1] Here too there are many hostelries for
After riding a mile beyond this city you find two roads, one of which goes
west and the other south-east. The westerly road is that through Cathay,
and the south-easterly one goes towards the province of Manzi.[NOTE 3]
Taking the westerly one through Cathay, and travelling by it for ten days,
you find a constant succession of cities and boroughs, with numerous
thriving villages, all abounding with trade and manufactures, besides the
fine fields and vineyards and dwellings of civilized people; but nothing
occurs worthy of special mention; and so I will only speak of a kingdom
NOTE 1. - The word sendaus (Pauthier), pl. of sendal, and in G.T.
sandal. It does not seem perfectly known what this silk texture was, but
as banners were made of it, and linings for richer stuffs, it appears to
have been a light material, and is generally rendered taffetas. In
Richard Coeur de Lion we find
"Many a pencel of sykelatoun
And of sendel of grene and broun,"
and also pavilions of sendel; and in the Anglo-French ballad of the death
of William Earl of Salisbury in St. Lewis's battle on the Nile -
"Le Meister du Temple brace les chivaux
Et le Count Long-Espee depli les sandaux."
The oriflamme of France was made of cendal. Chaucer couples taffetas and
sendal. His "Doctor of Physic"
"In sanguin and in perse clad was alle,
Lined with taffata and with sendalle."
[La Curne, Dict., s.v. Sendaus has: Silk stuff: "Somme de la delivrance
des sendaus" (Nouv. Compt. de l'Arg. p. 19). - Godefroy, Dict., gives:
"Sendain, adj., made with the stuff called cendal: Drap d'or sendains
(1392, Test. de Blanche. duch d'Orl., Ste-Croix, Arch. Loiret)." He says
s.v. CENDAL, "cendau, cendral, cendel, ... sendail, ... etoffe legere
de soie unie qui parait avoir ete analogue au taffetas." "'On faisait des
cendaux forts ou faibles, et on leur donnait toute sorte de couleurs. On
s'en servait surtout pour vetements et corsets, pour doublures de draps, de
fourrures et d'autres etoffes de soie plus precieuses, enfin pour tenture
d'appartements.' (Bourquelot, Foir. de Champ. I. 261)."
"J'ay de toilles de mainte guise,
De sidonnes et de cendaulx.
Soyes, satins blancs et vermaulx."
- Greban, Mist. de la Pass., 26826, G. Paris. - H.C.]
The origin of the word seems also somewhat doubtful. The word [Greek:
Sendes] occurs in Constant. Porphyrog. de Ceremoniis (Bonn, ed. I. 468),
and this looks like a transfer of the Arabic Sandas or Sundus, which is
applied by Bakui to the silk fabrics of Yezd. (Not. et Ext. II. 469.)
Reiske thinks this is the origin of the Frank word, and connects its
etymology with Sind. Others think that sendal and the other forms are
modifications of the ancient Sindon, and this is Mr. Marsh's view. (See
also Fr. Michel, Recherches, etc. I. 212; Dict. des Tissus, II. 171
NOTE 2. - JUJU is precisely the name given to this city by Rashiduddin, who
notices the vineyards. Juju is CHO-CHAU, just at the distance specified
from Peking, viz. 40 miles, and nearly 30 from Pulisanghin or Lu-kou K'iao.
The name of the town is printed Tsochow by Mr. Williamson, and Chechow
in a late Report of a journey by Consul Oxenham. He calls it "a large town
of the second order, situated on the banks of a small river flowing towards
the south-east, viz. the Kiu-ma-Ho, a navigable stream. It had the
appearance of being a place of considerable trade, and the streets were
crowded with people." (Reports of Journeys in China and Japan, etc.
Presented to Parliament, 1869, p. 9.) The place is called Juju also in
the Persian itinerary given by 'Izzat Ullah in J.R.A.S. VII. 308; and in
one procured by Mr. Shaw.