In old times Aelian gives much the
same account of the Lydian women. Herodotus's Gindanes of Lybia afford a
perfect parallel, "whose women wear on their legs anklets of leather. Each
lover that a woman has gives her one; and she who can show most is the
best esteemed, as she appears to have been loved by the greatest number of
men." (Martini Garnier, I. 520; Pall. Samml. II. 235; Ael. Var. Hist.
III. 1; Rawl. Herod. Bk. IV. ch. clxxvi.)
["Among some uncivilised peoples, women having many gallants are esteemed
better than virgins, and are more anxiously desired in marriage. This is,
for instance, stated to be the case with the Indians of Quito, the
Laplanders in Regnard's days, and the Hill Tribes of North Aracan. But in
each of these cases we are expressly told that want of chastity is
considered a merit in the bride, because it is held to be the best
testimony to the value of her attractions." (Westermarck, Human
Marriage, p. 81.) - H.C.]
Mr. Cooper's Journal, when on the banks of the Kin-sha Kiang, west of
Bathang, affords a startling illustration of the persistence of manners in
this region: "At 12h. 30m. we arrived at a road-side house, near which was
a grove of walnut-trees; here we alighted, when to my surprise I was
surrounded by a group of young girls and two elderly women, who invited me
to partake of a repast spread under the trees.... I thought I had stumbled
on a pic-nic party, of which the Tibetans are so fond. Having finished, I
lighted my pipe and threw myself on the grass in a state of
castle-building. I had not lain thus many seconds when the maidens brought
a young girl about 15 years old, tall and very fair, placed her on the
grass beside me, and forming a ring round us, commenced to sing and dance.
The little maid beside me, however, was bathed in tears. All this, I must
confess, a little puzzled me, when Philip (the Chinese servant) with a long
face, came to my aid, saying, 'Well, Sir, this is a bad business ... they
are marrying you.' Good heavens! how startled I was." For the honourable
conclusion of this Anglo-Tibetan idyll I must refer to Mr. Cooper's
Journal. (See the now published Travels, ch. x.)
NOTE 5. - All this is clearly meant to apply only to the rude people
towards the Chinese frontier; nor would the Chinese (says Richthofen) at
this day think the description at all exaggerated, as applied to the Lolo
who occupy the mountains to the south of Yachaufu. The members of the
group at p. 47, from Lieutenant Garnier's book, are there termed Man-tzu;
but the context shows them to be of the race of these Lolos. (See below,
pp. 60, 61.) The passage about the musk animal, both in Pauthier and in
the G.T., ascribes the word Gudderi to the language "of that people,"
i.e. of the Tibetans. The Geog. Latin, however, has "lingua Tartarica,"
and this is the fact. Klaproth informs us that Guderi is the Mongol
word. And it will be found (Kuderi) in Kovalevski's Dictionary, No.
2594. Musk is still the most valuable article that goes from Ta-t'sien-lu
to China. Much is smuggled, and single travellers will come all the way
from Canton or Si-ngan fu to take back a small load of it. (Richthofen.)
 Indeed Richthofen says that the boundary lay a few (German) miles west
of Yachau. I see that Martini's map puts it (in the 17th century) 10
German geographical miles, or about 46 statute miles, west of that
FURTHER DISCOURSE CONCERNING TEBET.
This province, called Tebet, is of very great extent. The people, as I
have told you, have a language of their own, and they are Idolaters, and
they border on Manzi and sundry other regions. Moreover, they are very
The country is, in fact, so great that it embraces eight kingdoms, and a
vast number of cities and villages.[NOTE 1] It contains in several
quarters rivers and lakes, in which gold-dust is found in great abundance.
[NOTE 2] Cinnamon also grows there in great plenty. Coral is in great
demand in this country and fetches a high price, for they delight to hang
it round the necks of their women and of their idols.[NOTE 3] They have
also in this country plenty of fine woollens and other stuffs, and many
kinds of spices are produced there which are never seen in our country.
Among this people, too, you find the best enchanters and astrologers that
exist in all that quarter of the world; they perform such extraordinary
marvels and sorceries by diabolic art, that it astounds one to see or even
hear of them. So I will relate none of them in this book of ours; people
would be amazed if they heard them, but it would serve no good purpose.
These people of Tebet are an ill-conditioned race. They have mastiff dogs
as bigs as donkeys, which are capital at seizing wild beasts [and in
particular the wild oxen which are called Beyamini, very great and
fierce animals] They have also sundry other kinds of sporting dogs, and
excellent lanner falcons [and sakers], swift in flight and well-trained,
which are got in the mountains of the country.[NOTE 5]
Now I have told you in brief all that is to be said about Tebet, and so we
will leave it, and tell you about another province that is called Caindu.
[Illustration: Village of Eastern Tibet on Szechwan Frontier (From
As regards Tebet, however, you should understand that it is subject to the