In 1272 Kublai's Son,
Mangalai, Was Made Prince Of An-Si, With Part Of Shen Si As His Appanage.
One More Son, Named Ai-Ya-Ch'ih, Is Mentioned In 1284, And In That Year Yet
Another, Tu Kan, Was Made Prince Of Chen-Nan, And Sent On An Expedition
In 1285 Essen Temur, who had received a chung-shu post in
1283, is spoken of as Prince of
Yuen Nan, and is stated to be engaged in
Kara-jang; in 1286 he is still there, and is styled 'son of the Emperor.' I
do not observe in the Annals that Hukaji ever bore the title of Prince of
Yuen Nan, or, indeed, any princely title. In 1287 Ai-ya-ch'ih is mentioned
as being at Shen Chou (Mukden) in connection with Kublai's 'personally
conducted' expedition against Nayen. In 1289 one more son, Geukju, was
patented Prince of Ning Yuean. In 1293 Kublai's third son Chinkin,
received a posthumous title, and Chinkin's son Temur was declared
heir-apparent to Kublai.
"The above are the only sons of Kublai whose names I have noticed in the
Annals. In the special table of Princes Numugan is styled Peh-an (instead
of Peh-p'ing) Prince. Aghrukji's name appears in the table (chap. 108, p.
107), but though he is styled Prince of Si-p'ing, he is not there stated
to be a son of Kublai; nor in the note I have supplied touching Tibet is
he styled a hwang-tsz or 'imperial son.' In the table Hukaji is
described as being in 1268 Prince of Yuen Nan, a title 'inherited in 1280
by Essen Temur.' I cannot discover anything about the other alleged sons
in Yule's note (Vol. I., p. 361). The Chinese count Kublai's years as
eighty, he having died just at the beginning of 1294 (our February); this
would make him seventy-nine at the very outside, according to our mode of
reckoning, or even seventy-eight if he was born towards the end of a year,
which indeed he was (eighth moon). If a man is born on the last day of the
year he is two years old the very next day according to Chinese methods of
counting, which, I suppose, include the ten months which they consider are
spent in the womb." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp.
XI., p. 370, n. 13.
The character King in King-shan is not the one representing Court
[Chinese] but [Chinese]. - Read "Wan-sui-Shan" instead of Wan-su-Shan.
XII., p. 380.
Keshikten has nothing to do with Kalchi. (PELLIOT.)
XVIII., p. 398.
THE CHEETA, OR HUNTING LEOPARD.
Cf. Chapters on Hunting Dogs and Cheetas, being an extract from the
"Kitab'u' l-Bazyarah," a treatise on Falconry, by Ibn Kustrajim, an
Arab writer of the Tenth Century. By Lieut.-Colonel D.C. Phillott and Mr.
R.F. Azoo (Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Jan., 1907, pp.
"The cheeta is the offspring of a lioness, by a leopard that coerces her,
and, for this reason, cheetas are sterile like mules and all other
hybrids. No animal of the same size is as weighty as the cheeta. It is the
most somnolent animal on earth. The best are those that are
'hollow-bellied,' roach backed, and have deep black spots on a dark tawny
ground, the spots on the back being close to each other; that have the eyes
bloodshot, small and narrow; the mouth 'deep and laughing'; broad
foreheads; thick necks; the black line from the eyes long; and the fangs
far apart from each other. The fully mature animal is more useful for
sporting purposes than the cub; and the females are better at hunting than
are the males, and such is the case with all beasts and birds of prey."
See Hippolyte Boussac, Le Guepard dans l'Egypte ancienne (La Nature,
21st March, 1908, pp. 248-250).
XIX., p. 400 n. Instead of Hoy tiao, read Hey tiao (Hei tiao).
XIX., p. 400. "These two are styled Chinuchi (or Cunichi), which is as
much as to say, 'The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs.'"
Dr. Laufer writes to me: "The word chinuchi is a Mongol term derived
from Mongol cinoa (pronounced cino or cono which means 'wolf,' with
the possessive suffix -ci, meaning accordingly a 'wolf-owner' or
'wolf-keeper).' One of the Tibetan designations for the mastiff is
cang-k'i (written spyang-k'yi), which signifies literally 'wolf-dog.'
The Mongol term is probably framed on this Tibetan word. The other
explanations given by Yule (401-402) should be discarded."
Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "J'incline a croire que les Cunichi sont a
lire Cuiuci et repondent au kouei-tch'e ou kouei-yeou-tch'e,
'censeurs,' des textes chinois; les formes chinoises sont transcrites du
mongol et se rattachent au verbe gueyue, ou gueyi, 'courir'; on peut
songer a restituer gueyuekci. Un Ming-ngan (= Minghan), chef des
kouei-tch'e, vivait sous Kublai et a sa biographie au ch. 135 du Yuan
Che; d'autre part, peut-etre faut-il lire, par deplacement de deux points
diacritiques, Bayan gueyuekci dans Rashid ed-Din, ed. BLOCHET, II., 501."
XX., p. 408, n. 6. Cachar Modun must be the place called
Ha-ch'a-mu-touen in the Yuan Shi, ch. 100, f deg.. 2 r. (PELLIOT.)
XXIV., pp. 423, 430. "Bark of Trees, made into something like Paper, to
pass for Money over all his Country."
Regarding Bretschneider's statement, p. 430, Dr. B. Laufer writes to me:
"This is a singular error of Bretschneider. Marco Polo is perfectly
correct: not only did the Chinese actually manufacture paper from the bark
of the mulberry tree (Morus alba), but also it was this paper which was
preferred for the making of paper-money. Bretschneider is certainly right
in saying that paper is made from the Broussonetia, but he is assuredly
wrong in the assertion that paper is not made in China from mulberry
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