Or 'dripping milk.' The second
quality is called p'ing ju, or 'potted milk,' and its colour is inferior
to that of the 'picked incense.' The next quality is called p'ing hiang,
or 'potted incense.' so called, they say, owing to its being prized so
much at the time of gathering, that it is placed in pots (p'ing). In
this p'ing hiang (variety of frankincense) there are three grades,
superior, medium and inferior. The next quality is called tai-hiang, or
'bag incense'; thus called, they say, because at the time of gathering, it
is merely put into bags; it is also divided into three qualities, like the
"The next kind is the ju-t'a; it consists of incense mixed with gravel.
"The next kind is the hei-t'a, because its colour is black. The next
kind is the shui-shi-hei-t'a, because it consists of incense which has
been 'water damaged' the aroma turned, and the colour spoiled while on
"Mixed incense of various qualities and consisting of broken pieces is
called choe-siau ('cut-up'); when passed through a sieve and made into
dust, it is called ch'an-mo ('powder'). The above are the various
varieties of frankincense."
WARS AMONG THE TARTAR PRINCES AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE NORTHERN COUNTRIES.
XXII., p. 488.
"It seems that Russia [Chinese A-lo-sz' = Mongol Oros; the modern
Chinese name for Russia is Wo-lo-sz'] was unknown to the nations of
Eastern Asia before the Mongol period. In the Mongol and Chinese annals
the Russians are first mentioned after Subutai's invasion of Southern
Russia in 1223. The Yuean chao pi shi terms Russia or the Russians
Orus, as they are called even now by the Mongols. The Chinese of the
Mongol period write A-lo-sz', sometimes also Wa-lo-sz' or U-lu-sz'.
All these names evidently render the Mongol appellation Orus.
"In the Yuean shi, Russia is frequently mentioned.... I may notice here
some other instances where the Russians are spoken of in the Yuean-shi.
We read in the annals, s.a. 1253, that the Emperor Meng k'o (Mangu)
ordered Bi-dje Bie-rh-k'o to be sent to Wu-lo-sz' in order to take a
census of the people.
"It is an interesting fact recorded in the Yuean shi that there was in
the first half of the fourteenth century a settlement of Russians near
Peking. In the annals, chap. XXXIV., s.a. 1330, it is stated that the
Emperor Wen Tsung (Tob Timur, 1329-32, the great grandson of Kubilai),
formed a regiment composed of U-lo-sz' or Russians. This regiment being
commanded by a wan hu (commander of ten thousand of the third degree),
received the name 'The Ever-faithful Russian Life-guard.' It was placed
under the direct control of the council of war. Farther on in the same
chapter it is stated that 140 king of land, north of Ta tu (Peking)
was bought from the peasants and allotted to these Russians, to establish
a camp and to form a military colony. We read again in the same chapter
that they were furnished with implements of agriculture, and were bound to
present for the imperial table every kind of game, fish, etc., found in
the forests, rivers, and lakes of the country where their camp was
situated. This Russian regiment is again mentioned in chap. XXXV.
"In chapter XXXVI. it is recorded that in the year 1332 the prince
Djang-ghi presented 170 Russian prisoners and received a pecuniary reward.
On the same page we read that clothes and corn were bestowed on a thousand
Russians. In the same year the prince Yen t'ie-mu-rh presented 1500 Russian
prisoners to the Chinese emperor, and another prince, A-rh-ghia-shi-li,
"Finally, in the biography of Bo yen, chap. CXXXVIII., he is stated to
have been appointed in 1334 commander of the emperor's life-guard,
composed of Mongols, Kipchaks, and Russians." (E. BRETSCHNEIDER,
Mediaeval Researches, II., pp. 79-81.)
Prof. Parker (Asiatic Q. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 148) mentions the
appointment of a Russian Governor in 1337, and says: "It was the practice
of Princes in the West to send 'presents' of Russian captives. In one case
Yen Temur sent as many as 2500 in one batch."
LIST OF MSS. OF MARCO POLO'S BOOK SO FAR AS THEY ARE KNOWN.
II., p. 533.
GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum. No. 84, vellum, 4to, Cent. XV.: 1. Guido de
Colonna's Destruction of Troy. 2. Julius Valerius' History of Alexander
the Great. 3. Archbishop Turpin's Itinerary. 4. Marco Polo.
Begins (25, 5 [f. 191 (197) r'o, lines 1-3): pp. [blue] Incipit liber
domini marci Pauli de Venecijs | de condicionibus et consuetudinibus
orientalium regionum [rubric] L [small illuminated initial] Ibrum
prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini marci.
Ends (33, 3 [f. 253 (259) r'o, lines 8-12): girfalci et herodij qui inde
postmodum ad diuersas prouincias | et regiones deferuntur et cetera.
pp. [blue] Explicit liber domini marci Pauli | de Venecijs de diuisionibus
et consue- | tudinibus orientalium regionum [Pipino's Version].
5. Frater Odoricus Forojuliensis.
6. Iohannis Mandeville, De Mirabilibus.
II., p. 533.
GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum, Cent. XIV. No. 458, vellum, 4to. 1. Marci
Pavli Veneti, De Orientalibus Regionibus.
Begins - after a preface by "Frater Franciscus Pipinus de Bononia"
beginning (I, 1 r'o, lines 1-4): Incipit liber primus domini marci pauli de
venecijs de orien [rubric] | L [gilt historiated initial with gestures
forming a floreated border.] Ibrum prudentis talibus regionibus. Prolo
[last three words rubric] | honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini gus. [last
word rubric] | marci pauli de venetijs de conditio | and ending (i, 2 r'o,
line 3): nostri ihesu christi cunctorum uisibilium et inuisibilium
creatoris, after which comes a list of the chapters, titles and numbers
(the latter rubricated) which concludes (i, 7 r'o, line i): D (small blue
initial with red ornament) e prouincia ruthenorum, xlix.