Journals Of Two Expeditions Into The Interior Of New South Wales, 1817-18 - By John Oxley











































































 - JOURNALS OF TWO EXPEDITIONS INTO THE INTERIOR OF NEW SOUTH WALES,
BY ORDER OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN THE YEARS - Page 1
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JOURNALS OF TWO EXPEDITIONS INTO THE INTERIOR OF NEW SOUTH WALES, BY ORDER OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN THE YEARS 1817-18. BY JOHN OXLEY, SURVEYOR GENERAL OF THE TERRITORY AND LIEUTENANT OF THE ROYAL NAVY. WITH MAPS AND VIEWS OF THE INTERIOR, OR NEWLY DISCOVERED COUNTRY.

Production notes: * 12 items of errata listed in the book have been corrected in this eBook. * Illustrations, Maps and

Charts have not been included in this eBook. * Notes included within the text have been included in square brackets [] in the text at the point referenced. * Italics have been converted to upper case.

CONTENTS

PART I

LIST OF PLATES LIST OF CHARTS INRODUCTION JOURNAL OF AN EXPEDITION IN AUSTRALIA PART I.

PART II

PREFACE JOURNAL OF AN EXPEDITION IN AUSTRALIA PART II. APPENDIX PART I. No. I. Instructions for conducting and leading first expedition. No. II Report of tour over Blue Mountains in 1815 by the Governor. No. III Letter from Oxley to Governor advising of his return from first expedition. APPENDIX PART II. No. IV Diary of Mr. Evans, from 8th to 18th of July, 1818. No. V. Governor's report on the return of Oxley from the second expedition, together with a letter from Oxley on his arrival at Port Stephens.. No. VI. Governor's report on Oxley's discovery of Port Stephens together with a letter from Oxley to the Governor on this subject. A brief abstract of the population of N.S.W in 1815, 1816 and 1817. A statement of land in cultivation, quantities of stock, etc. from 1813 to 1817 inclusive.

LIST OF PLATES (NOT INCLUDED IN THIS EBOOK).

Field Plains from Mount Aymot. The Grave of a Native of Australia. Arbuthnot's Range, from the West. Liverpool Plains. West Prospect from View Hill. Bathurst's Falls. A Native Chief of Bathurst.

LIST OF CHARTS (NOT INCLUDED IN THIS EBOOK).

Range of the Thermometer from April 9th to August 30th 1817 by John Oxley. A Chart of Part of the Interior of New South Wales, 1817. First Expedition. A Chart of Part of the Interior of New South Wales, 1818. Second Expedition. Reduced Sketch of the Two Expeditions. A Plan of Port Macquarie Including a Sketch of Part of Hastings River, on the East Coast of New South Wales. A General Statement of the Inhabitants of New South Wales as per General Muster commencing 28th September 1818, with an account of same at Van Diemmens Land. A General Statement of the Land in Cultivation etc., the quantities of Stock etc., as accounted for at the General Muster, with an account of same at Van Diemmens Land..

JOURNAL OF AN EXPEDITION IN AUSTRALIA Part I.

TO HIS EXCELLENCY LACHLAN MACQUARIE, ESQ. MAJOR GENERAL IN THE ARMY, AND CAPTAIN GENERAL AND GOVERNOR IN CHIEF IN AND OVER THE TERRITORY OF NEW SOUTH WALES AND ITS DEPENDENCIES, THE FOLLOWING JOURNAL OF AN EXPEDITION, PERFORMED UNDER HIS ADMINISTRATION AND DIRECTION, IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, BY HIS VERY OBEDIENT HUMBLE SERVANT, JOHN OXLEY.

INTRODUCTION.

The colony had been established many years before any successful attempt had been made to penetrate into the interior of the country, by crossing the range of hills, known to the colonists as the Blue Mountains: these mountains were considered as the boundary of the settlements westward, the country beyond them being deemed inaccessible.

The year 1813 proving extremely dry, the grass was nearly all destroyed, and the water failed; the horned cattle suffered severely from this drought, and died in great numbers. It was at this period that three gentlemen, Lieutenant Lawson, of the Royal Veteran Company, Messrs. Blaxland, and William Wentworth, determined upon attempting a passage across these mountains, in hopes of finding a country which would afford support to their herds during this trying season.

They crossed the Nepean River at Emu Plains, and ascending the first range of mountains, were entangled among gullies and deep ravines for a considerable time, insomuch that they began to despair of ultimate success. At length they were fortunate enough to find a main dividing range, along the ridge of which they travelled, observing that it led them westward. After suffering many hardships, their distinguished perseverance was at length rewarded by the view of a country, which at first sight promised them all they could wish.

Into this Land of Promise they descended by a steep mountain, which Governor Macquarie has since named Mount York [Note: This mountain was found to be 795 feet in perpendicular height above the vale of Clwydd.]. The valley [Note: Named by Governor Macquarie the Vale of Clwydd.] to which it gave them access was covered with grass, and well watered by a small stream running easterly, and which was subsequently found to fall into the Nepean River. From Mount York they proceeded westerly eight or ten miles, passing during the latter part of the way through an open country, but broken into steep hills. Seeing that the stream before mentioned as watering the valley ran easterly, it was evident they had not yet crossed the ranges which it was supposed would give source to waters falling westerly; they had however proceeded sufficiently far for their purpose, and ascertained that no serious obstacles existed to a farther progress westward.

Their provisions being nearly expended, they returned to Sydney, after an absence of little more than a month; and the report of their discoveries opened new prospects to the colonists, who had began to fear that their narrow and confined limits would not long afford pasture and subsistence for their greatly increasing flocks and herds.

His Excellency Governor Macquarie, with that promptitude which distinguishes his character, resolved not to let slip so favourable an opportunity of obtaining a farther knowledge of the interior. Mr. Evans, the deputy surveyor, was directed to proceed With a party, and follow up the discoveries already made. He crossed the Nepean River on the 20th of November, 1813, and on the 26th arrived at the termination of Messrs. Lawson, Blaxland, and Wentworth's journey. Proceeding westward, he crossed a mountainous [Note:

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